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Multiparametric 3T MRI for the prediction of pathological downgrading after radical prostatectomy in patients with biopsy-proven Gleason score 3 + 4 prostate cancer

Gondo T, Hricak H, Sala E, Zheng J, Moskowitz CS, Bernstein M, Eastham JA, Vargas HA.

Eur Radiol. 2014 Aug 7. [Epub ahead of print]

Comment from Henk van der Poel:
Multiparameter MRI may prevent unnecessary treatment in clinical Gleason 7 prostate cancer.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of pre-treatment 3-Tesla (3T) multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for predicting Gleason score (GS) downgrading after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with GS 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa) on biopsy.

METHODS:

We retrospectively reviewed 304 patients with biopsy-proven GS 3 + 4 PCa who underwent mpMRI before RP. On T2-weighted imaging and three mpMRI combinations (T2-weighted imaging + diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI], T2-weighted imaging + dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI [DCE-MRI], and T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI), two radiologists (R1/R2) scored the presence of a dominant tumour using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = definitely absent to 5 = definitely present). Diagnostic performance in identifying downgrading was evaluated via areas under the curves (AUCs). Predictive accuracies of multivariate models were calculated.

RESULTS:

In predicting downgrading, T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.89/0.85 for R1/R2) performed significantly better than T2-weighted imaging alone (AUC = 0.72/0.73; p < 0.001/p = 0.02 for R1/R2), while T2-weighted imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI (AUC = 0.89/0.84 for R1/R2) performed no better than T2-weighted imaging + DWI (p = 0.48/p > 0.99 for R1/R2). On multivariate analysis, the clinical + mpMRI model incorporating T2-weighted imaging + DWI (AUC = 0.92/0.88 for R1/R2) predicted downgrading significantly better than the clinical model (AUC = 0.73; p < 0.001 for R1/R2).

CONCLUSION:

mpMRI improves the ability to identify a subgroup of patients with Gleason 3 + 4 PCa on biopsy who are candidates for active surveillance. DCE-MRI (compared to T2 + DWI) offered no additional benefit to the prediction of downgrading.

KEY POINTS:

• Diagnostic performance of T2-weighted-imaging + DWI was better than T2-weighted-imaging alone. • Diagnostic performance of T2-weighted-imaging + DWI was similar to T2-weighted-imaging + DWI + DCE-MRI. • Combining clinical and T2-weighted-imaging + DWI features best predicted GS downgrading. • mpMRI might prevent overtreatment by increasing eligibility for PCa active surveillance.

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